The A-Z Guide to Audio Terms - Audiostance

The Complete Guide to Audio Terminology

If you’ve just stepped into the world of all things audio related and don’t seem to understand pretty much anything that everyone is talking about, you’re in the right place! We’ve compiled this handy A – Z guide to some of the most commonly used audio terms you’ll encounter.

We’ve included terms relating to audio equipment, sound production, and terms used to describe the sound, both on a technical and colloquial level.


AC stands for ‘alternating current’ and is the opposite of DC (direct current). Most standard adapters for electric guitar pedals and pedalboards operate on this type of electricity. A speaker requiring AC power does not offer battery capabilities, limiting portability.


‘Acoustic’ is a broad term used in audio engineering and the world of musicians. In science, ‘acoustics’ refer to a branch within the realm of physics that correlates to studying different types of waves, such as vibrations, sounds, ultrasounds & infrasound.

In audio engineering, the term defines how soundwaves behave in different room settings.

In the world of musicians, the term ‘acoustic’ relates to non-electric instruments (guitars, basses, etc.)

Acoustic Treatment

Acoustic treatment is a relatively broad term for isolating or reinforcing products and constructions with additional ‘acoustic’ qualities.

There are two types of acoustic treatments; the first type refers to ‘isolating’ a product (or a construction, room, and such). Items that feature acoustic isolation tend to prevent the sounds produced by the same item from leaving it.

 A good example of an acoustically treated product is a set of headphones with ambient noise reduction technology. Headphones typically come supplied with a driver unit (or many drivers) that reproduces the music from external sources (PC or a smartphone, for example), but in most cases, a fraction of the sounds produced this way leak outside of the headphones.

There are ‘active’ and ‘passive’ sound isolation technologies and techniques, both of which aim to reduce the ‘leaking’ of the sound.

The second type of acoustic treatment is on the opposite end of the spectrum. Rooms or buildings where concerts or rehearsals are typically taking place (as well as certain venues) need to conform to the ‘sound pollution laws’ and require additional isolation.

On the other hand, musical bands and groups would have a hard time practicing or performing live if external noises were to leak inside the room in question. That’s why acoustically treated rooms prevent any sounds from leaking in and out at the same time.


The word ‘active’ is used in various situations in music. There are active ‘pickups,’ active ‘hardware,’ and active ‘features’ on guitars, pedals, and such.

In plain words, any active ‘feature’ requires power to function. Additionally, active features can be toggled on and off for additional versatility, which means that they do not need to be ‘active’ the whole time the item is in use.

When we’re talking about speakers, active speakers require an amplifier, while passive speakers offer a built-in amplifier. The opposite of an active speaker is a passive speaker.


AFL stands for After-Fade Listen and refers to a special system generally used for mixing consoles. AFL allows the audio engineer to monitor different parameters and signals at a pre-set level (after the ‘fading’ process); this allows the engineer to compare the end result with the initial PFL (pre-fade listen) results.


When the term ‘aggressive’ is used to describe a speaker, it typically refers to a harsh, over-tuned sound. Speakers focusing more on volume than sound profile will often have a more aggressive sound signature with substantially elevated midrange and treble.


A single unit of EC (electrical current) is described by the symbol ‘A,’ which stands for ‘Amp.’ The ‘amperage’ of an electrical contraption (electric amplifiers, for example) shows us how many amps it features. The higher the number, the stronger the electrical device, but the more power it consumes.

Analog Signal

Analog (or Analogue) is one of the broadest terms in the world of music, as it has numerous similar meanings and uses. Vaguely described, analog is a type of audio signal that is ‘initial and original.’ Analog devices utilize the created electric signals ‘as is’ and reproduce the audio without any modifications or tweaks. Analog signal is completely opposite to ‘digital signal’.


‘Attack’ refers to the time any sound needs before it reaches its ‘peak’ (maximum amplitude). This time interval is measured in milliseconds, but it substantially affects the overall sounds of instruments on various levels.

Drum parts, for example, have the fastest attack time, as they are capable of producing sounds that can reach their maximum amplitude almost instantly. For example, bowed instruments such as violins have the slowest attack time.

‘Attack’ time is in tight correlation with the musician’s technique in some cases. Guitar players can tweak their ‘attack’ by taking different approaches with their pick or the way they press on the frets of their guitar.

The second use of the term ‘attack’ concerns compressor pedals and (noise) gate pedals. In this particular scenario, the term ‘attack’ refers to the time the CPU of the pedal needs to reduce the signal level.


In speakers, attenuation describes the voltage reduction on a particular speaker driver. The concept exists outside of just audio, and the term in general, describes the process of reducing the power of something else. For example, when light shines through a body of water, the sunlight becomes attenuated (lessened) as it passes through.

Audio Frequency

Audio frequency is a scale of signals audible to human ears. Typically, humans can ‘recognize’ sounds from 20 hertz to 20 kilohertz, with 20 Hz being the least and 20 kHz being the most audible sounds.

Audio Interface

Audio interface is basically a contraption that helps musicians and audio engineers utilize various programs and plug-ins, allowing for a substantially more ‘digital’ approach. Most audio interfaces come supplied with various built-in features that can drastically change how the recording process functions and how the end result turns out to be.

Audio interfaces are typically connected to PCs via USBs and often feature integrated their own pre-amps. The main difference between audio interface models is in the number of channels they provide (ranging from two to thirty).


Audiophile is a term often used to describe someone with a passion and interest in sound that extends past casual listening. Audiophiles focus on the performance of sound from a more theoretical viewpoint than your traditional listener. Audiophiles traditionally look for the most accurate and balanced sound representation. You can think of an audiophile as a sound connoisseur.


A ‘backup’ is essentially a copy of your current work progress made in any form of software – Guitar Pro, Pro Tools, Cubase, etc.

Making a ‘backup’ is one of the most essential parts of being a studio engineer or a musician. Regardless of whether you’re recording bits and pieces or multiple tracks, there are countless scenarios where your progress can be lost forever – blackouts, accidentally turning off your PC, and so on.

Although certain programs will save your current progress periodically and automatically, making copies in time is always the best way to go.


BPF stands for ‘Band-Pass Filter.’ This type of filter either removes or diminishes frequencies that are distanced from the central frequency. Any frequencies above or below the center will be ‘filtered.’


Bandwidth represents the range of different frequencies within an EC circuit (amplifiers, or filters, for example).


‘Bass’ in its original sense is a four-string instrument that can be acoustic or electric. However, in audio engineering, you’ll find ‘bass’ labels on almost every console and pedal.

In this sense, Bass refers to the frequencies located at the low-end of the sound spectrum. The lowest bass parameters indicate frequencies of the lowest level, as well as indicating the lowest possible frequencies an object is able to reproduce under normal circumstances.


A bit represents a binary digit, either one or zero.

Bit Depth

Bit depth refers to the number of bits in a sample. The bit depth is related to the resolution of the audio and relates to the dynamic range of the audio.

Bit Rate

Bit rate refers to the number of bits that can be reproduced or replayed within a given time frame (typically, this is a single second). Under normal circumstances, bit rates are expressed in kilobits/second or megabits/second.


A ‘boost’ pedal and the ‘boost’ function on your desk are completely different things. First of all, a ‘boost’ (booster) pedal is meant to amplify the sound of a guitar or bass, and that includes all frequencies at the same time.

The main difference between a booster and the ‘boost’ function is that the boost function extends the span of frequencies that can pass through the filter. On the other hand, the ‘cut’ function reduces this range.


BPM stands for beats-per-minute; this parameter tells you the exact information of the track’s tempo. Although there are several opinions and schools regarding tempo markings, this one seems to be widely accepted by musicians worldwide (ranging from the slowest to the fastest markings):

  1. Grave – 20 to 40 bpm
  2. Lento/Largo – 40 to 60 bpm
  3. Adagio – 66 to 76 bpm
  4. Andante – 76 to 108 bpm
  5. Moderato – 108 to 120 bpm
  6. Allegro –  120 to 168 bpm
  7. Presto – 168 to 200 bpm
  8. Prestissimo – More than 200 bpm

Generally speaking, most commercial songs are written in Moderato, which seems to be the ‘golden middle’ in terms of pace and the song’s speed.


The brightness of a speaker is usually related to the midrange and treble presence. Speakers that have more high-frequency presence are often referred to as bright, while those with recessed midrange and treble are typically considered dull-sounding. We, as humans, tend to use other spectrums as a reference that is globally easier to understand. We often use color or temperature as parallel references to help the reader understand a speaker’s sound profile.


Buffer represents storage for short-term data particles. Temporary data is stored in the buffer until it is processed and transferred to another location within the system.


Just like the name implies, a cabinet is basically a large, wooden enclosure where loudspeakers are typically housed. They’re meant to protect the speakers’ components, but they can also substantially affect their sonic performance through different sealing techniques.

Cardioid (Microphone)

There are numerous types of microphones, cardioid being one of them. This type of microphone can catch up with audio in front of them while almost completely ignoring the sounds on the rear end. They earned their name due to the shape of the angle at which they pick up the sounds (cardio = heart).

Cardioid microphones are normally used for situations when audio needs to be recorded from the front when ambient sounds from the rear could improve the overall atmosphere, and in situations when noise in the back needs to be excluded in total (all three conditions need to be met cumulatively). A perfect example is recording a band performing on stage – the microphone faces the core of the band, and it picks up the monitors and cabinets on the sides while ignoring the noise the audience makes.


CD-R is essentially a compact disk on which you can record data exactly once. Data contained on CD-Rs can’t be erased or reused. Nowadays, CD-Rs are a relic of the past, replaced by DVDs, Blu-Rays, and newer types of data sharing.


The term ‘channel’ in the world of audio engineering means pretty much the same as in its traditional form. A channel is a single line of controls bound to a single input on the mixer (mixing console).


The term ‘chord’ can be described as a ‘group of 3 or more notes played simultaneously’. Groups of 2 notes are called ‘dyads’ and are sometimes referred to as ‘chords’ by laymen and beginner musicians. If the notes are played in succession, they form a ‘melody’ rather than a chord.


Within the context of audio engineering, the word ‘chorus’ has two separate meanings; it refers to either the chorus as a part of the song or to the chorus as a sound effect. As a sound effect, the chorus doubles the signal and implements delay or pitch-shifting effects, making the sound richer and fuller.


Clipping occurs when a speaker is driven too hard, and the sound distorts. Clipping in recording can also refer to when the input volume to a microphone is too loud and clips.


Compression is a term used to describe reducing the dynamic range of a track or sound. Compression also reduces the overall amount of data needing to be transmitted and increases codec efficiency.


DAC stands for Digital-to-Analog Converter and is a device often required for use with higher-impedance headphones. It takes in a digital signal and then converts it into an analog signal which is then fed into the listening device.


A digital audio workstation (or DAW) is a form of virtual studio program used for recording. Some of the most popular DAW programs are Cubase, Sonar, and Logic Pro.

dB (decibel)

A decibel (properly pronounced as ‘deciBel’) is a unit expressing the intensity of an audio signal. It’s often used in comparison to another source of audio; typically, input & output levels of amps and filters are compared through decibels.


‘Decay’ refers to the situation where the sound’s amplitude gradually diminishes over time.


The time interval between the moment a sound is generated and the moment it actually takes effect is called ‘delay.’ In the audio engineering context, ‘delay’ is commonly called ‘latency,’ whereas ‘delay’ stands for an effect caused by guitar pedals.


Everything ‘digital’ is on the opposite end of the spectrum of where ‘analog’ is. Simply put, digitalized contraptions, tools, and gadgets rely on digital information storage (based on binary codes) and utilize DC to represent sonic signals with samples. Generally speaking, an adequately built digital system has the potential to have infinite resolution (just like an average analog system). However, most digital systems operate at fixed sample rates.

DNR (Dolby Noise-Reduction Technology)

Dolby is a pioneer of noise reduction technology. Simply put, ‘noise reduction’ refers to specifically engineered isolation that retains all audio within the given device (microphone, headphones, and similar).

Their noise reduction systems are comprised of type B, type C, and type S for domestic machines and Type A and Type SR for more professional machines.


A driver is basically a bridge between a program’s peripherals (for instance, it could be a sound card, a printer, or a scanner) and the software’s core -the main components that relay the tasks and initial information. On a loudspeaker, the term ‘driver’ actually refers to its ‘drive unit’ rather than the ‘driver’ and gains a slightly different meaning; 

Drum pad

A drum pad is a drum-shaped synthetic surface packed with ‘triggers’ (sensors) that send signals whenever they’re hit with a drumstick. Drummers generally use them for practice, although most modern software programs feature a variety of drum pads as standalone instruments.


‘Dynamics’ explain how certain aspects of the soundstage behave in correlation with one another. In short, the dynamics define the performance of lows, mids, and highs by observing their behavior between them.


Effects are ‘modifications’ to the sounds recorded or played. Effects alter the signal in one or more ways (depending on how many effects are used) for the sheer purpose of bringing a bit more creativity.

Effects Loop (FX loop)

An effects loop is basically an interface, commonly equipped with great connectivity, that allows engineers and musicians to make and control a chain of effects.

EQ / Equalizer

‘EQ’ is short for ‘equalizer.’ It can be an effect or a pedal; its purpose is to allow the engineer (or a musician) to adjust various parameters by either boosting or attenuating specific frequencies.


Fader is a sliding pot control commonly found on mixers and similar processors.


Fidelity represents the precision of reproduced acoustic soundwaves in comparison to electric inputs. The truer the representation is, the higher the level of fidelity is.


While equalizers are meant to either boost or attenuate certain frequencies, filters can only do the latter.


Frequency is the number of cycles in an audio waveform (per second). Frequency is measured in Hertz.

Frequency Response

Frequency response is the graphical representation of a speaker’s sound profile. Bass, midrange, and treble are all plotted on a graph that allows the reader to see how the speaker’s sound is represented.


‘Gain’ represents the number of decibels a signal was amplified by compared to the initial signal’s strength.


‘Glitch’ is synonymous with ‘bug’ – it’s an unwanted and unintended signal corruption.

Harmonic Distortion

Harmonic distortion is a parameter describing the number of additional harmonics that weren’t present within the initial signal.


Hertz (Hz) is a standard symbol for frequency measurement. 

High Range

The high range stands for the top fraction of audible frequencies; normally, frequencies above 1 kilohertz are within this range.

In-ear monitor

In-ear monitors are essentially special headphones used by live musicians that offer superb fidelity and sonic performance.


Impedance relates to the ‘resistance’ of a given object in the context of changing its initial state.


The term interface can be used to describe a panel of settings in software or a physical device that serves as a bridge between different pieces of audio equipment.

Jack (plug)

Jack is essentially an audio connector, typically 0.25 inches in diameter. The most common versions are TS and TRS versions (for balanced and unbalanced signals).

kHz (Kilohertz)

Kilohertz (abbreviated as kHz) is representative of 1000 Hertz and is used to describe the frequency of audio.


Latency is the parameter expressing the extent of the ‘delay’ effect.


A loop is a ‘cycle’ or a ‘repetition.’ Musicians often record repeatable riffs as ‘loops’ to get inspired to create melodies, harmonies, or solos.

Low range

The low range is the lowest fraction of audible frequencies. Normally, frequencies below one kilohertz are within this range.

Machine head

Machine heads, tuning pegs, or tuning heads are the small tuning contraptions on the guitar’s top. Additionally, Machine Head is the name of a popular heavy metal band.


Frequencies between the low range and the high range are within the ‘mid-range’. These are all the frequencies that are between 300 hertz and 3 kilohertz.


MIDI stands for Musical-Instrument-Digital-Interface. This is a standard interface format, enabling musicians to emulate hundreds of instruments on a computer program.


A mixer is a contraption that is used to merge several signals together. Bigger models are typically called ‘consoles’ and ‘desks.’


Noise reduction

Noise reduction is a technique of attenuating the levels of the output audio.


A unit by which electrical resistance is measured (impedance).

Operating system

Software is used by PCs and laptops and is required to start up and load every other program.


Overloading the analog circuitry on purpose is called ‘overdriving.’ It can be used in numerous ways, but overdrive pedals most popularly use it.


Passive is on the opposite end of where ‘Active’ is. Passive features are not powered by electricity and can’t be toggled on or off. They are always ‘off,’ in a sense.


Pickups are sometimes called ‘magnets.’ These magnets ‘pick up’ the vibrations in the strings and convert them into electrical signals.


Smaller subsidiary software is meant to augment the versatility and functionality of the main software (platform).


Ram is short for Random-Access-Memory. It’s a specific type of computer memory used for temporary data storage.


Reverb is a short word for ‘reverberation.’ This term relates to the sound bouncing off different surfaces, somewhat altering the frequencies during the process.


A ‘cut’ fragment of a track or a song. In most cases, a sample can be used with a MIDI controller.

Sample Rate

Sample rate defines the number of A/D converters that can sample incoming waveforms each second.


By definition, ‘stereo’ sound features two channels that can mimic the situation of two separate audio sources playing the same sounds.


The pace of a song; consult ‘BPM.’


Tremolo is a type of sound modulation utilizing an LFO. Alternatively, the term ‘tremolo’ can relate to a part of a guitar (‘tremolo or whammy bar’).


What effects are for guitars, ‘voices’ are for pianos and synthesizers.


Watt is a standard symbol (name) for electrical power (W).


White noise

Signals with a flat power density are called ‘white noises.’ They sound like static crackling and are almost exclusively caused by accident.

In Conclusion

There are hundreds, even thousands, of terms, used between music production, sound engineering, and audio reviews. Some of these are easy to define, while others are used with more subjectivity and are open to interpretation.

Audiostance Author - Marko Jovanovic
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Born and raised in Belgrade, Serbia. Marko is an avid musician with over 15 years of experience in recording and live performance. Aside from us, he’s also the senior news editor for Ultimate Guitar.

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